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  • There It's hard to think of a context where you would write this — except perhaps as a an explanation of something previously written. We do have some evidence for this. There is the latest update... In speech, it could be said while pointing t…
  • @hfhua1949 The countries' ambassadors This can only refer to a group of more than one people, each of whom is an ambassador of a country. Since countries is plural, we know that at least two of those people are ambassadors of different countries.…
  • @lflower462 1) Nobody knew exactly what Ed has been doing yesterday. This is ungrammatical because PRESENT PERFECT forms in English are used to locate the action or process in a period UP TO NOW. The word yesterday denotes a period BEF…
  • None of those words sound right to me. I could use wide-ranging.
  • @hknte * if it were FORMAL STYLE — especially written prose * if it was INFORMAL STYLE — especially conversational speech The expression Wouldn't it be great? is * SPOKEN — contrasted with WRITTEN Would it not? * CONVERSATIONAL — gr…
  • Finally ... * Two different reference points * the time that she got home — i.e. lunch preparation was earlier * after she got home — i.e. you waited until she came home and then made lunch but then something else happened Suddenly we re…
  • To continue ... * Two different reference points * noon — by is OK at the start of the sentence By noon he'd been playing computer games for two hours. * later then noon — before This makes sense if we're describing the consequence. …
  • I'll make a new post ... * From point of view of the speaker/writer * if the reference point is earlier today then the bed-time was yesterday or last night * if the reference point is before today then the bed-time was the night befo…
  • @irmantasgn * OK * It depends the reference time when he was tired. The most likely adverbial is the night before. * OK * OK * OK * Both are possible — with different meanings. * Both are possible — with different meanings. * OK * OK — …
  • @tsights260 The form comes is also a problem. Since the author has failed to communicate his/her meaning in this sentence, your only hope is to read the rest of the chapter — including the text before this sentence. Then try to answer: …
  • Attach = 'create a mental association' a face = 'a memory of a person — recognised in the same way that you recognise a face' For example, when you buy a cheese, you remember the cheesemaker. And in future, every time you see that cheese, or eve…
  • You could start by substituting how extensive. Yes, full and true will need to become fully and truly — but not in the MAIN CLAUSE. * It is difficult to assess how fully extensive the damage is. (or was) * She was exaggerating how extensive t…
  • @irmantasgn, I think you're approaching the task from the wrong direction. The functions of the PAST SIMPLE and PAST PERFECT are not primarily to relate events in time relative to each other. In continuous speech or writing the task is to refer even…
  • @lb_c119, I think you've missed the sense of 'widespread' in all three sentences. And I think truly in the second sentence belongs in a different clause; She was exaggerating how far-reaching the problem truly is.
  • This sent me back to two old dictionaries of mine aimed at the 'advanced learner'. Neither is the latest edition, but I don't expect there's much difference in approach. The 1974 edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current Engl…
  • Dasha, this is not Future! The English word will is classed not simply as a verb but as a MODAL VERB. MODAL VERBS * have a different grammar form verbs which are not AUXILIARIES * express attitudes or judgements * approximately reflect …
  • This discussion raises two basic questions about dictionary definitions: 1. What range of senses of a word should be identified? 2. How do you communicate communicate them to a reader? And before answering either question, there's the even mor…
  • Right, I've worked out what the difference is for me... * To be unwilling or reluctant to do something is a state of mind * To refuse to do something is to communicate that state of mind — typically with words, but possibly with a gesture,
  • Your link leads to a page that is unavailable. If so, why is 'refuse', then, defined as "indicate or show that one is not willing to do something"? That suggests then that somebody might actually do something, but just expressing a desire not …
  • @irmantasgn * He couldn’t go out until he hadn’t cleaned his room. This is grammatical but the meaning is very strange indeed. It only makes sense in this context: He was told that he must not clean his room. On Monday he …
  • @MitchMacKaye The definition of 'reluctant' is "unwilling and hesitant". No. The definition is Unwilling and hesitant; disinclined. /with infinitive/ ‘she seemed reluctant to answer’ The second line makes all the diffe…
  • @tm_adams476 Much like law, language is black and white. I totally disagree. Language is a communicative transaction between two parties. Neither party can appeal to the equivalent of a law court. The ALLEGED synonyms are as …
  • @vjamal915, the title is almost sixty years old. For the first forty-one years it was titled the Oxford Advanced Lerarner's Dictionary of Current English or OALDCE. It established such a dominance in its chosen market that the publishers felt they d…
  • @vjamal915, as a teacher of English language, a student of English language teaching, a trainer of English language teachers, an English language teaching consultant and an observer from retirement, I can report from these decades of experience that…
  • @jhylands2 * The spelling thing's can only represent 'of thing' — which means nothing at all. * Certainly means 'I have no doubt that...'. What this signifies must depend on the context. We can't tell why the speaker chooses to say this when w…
  • @SB_19, look at the example sentences from the dictionary linked to this web page 1 [mass noun] The devotion of time and attention to gaining knowledge of an academic subject, especially by means of books. ‘the study of English’ ‘an appl…
  • @timperkin9 * The possessive of we is our. * The written possessive of onlookers is onlookers'. (In speech they are identical.) * The possessive of we onlookers is of us onlookers. The noun you want is consternation. There are restrict…
  • I now see it's not quite so simple. It's true that the pentathlon and the decathlon are events in the sport called athletis _or _track and field. But I was wrong to say the same of this other race — which is a combination of three events from th…
  • @kzrarkovic, the trialthlon isn't a sport. It's an event. The sport can be called athletics or track and field — both without the. Look at some other sports where a competition is divided into events — swimming, for example, or cycling. I thin…
  • @composmentis, boyfriends not included is a VERBLESS CLAUSE. Boyfriend's not included is strange because Boyfriend is not included is strange. You would normally have to write Your boyfriend is not included. or A boyfriend is not included. o…