Which one is true?

This is a question which is questioned in the exam. According to me, the true option is B, but why not be option C? Can Anyone who is native speaker, answer this question please?

Although the science of geology as we know it today is a relatively young field, ........

A) it basically refers to the scientific study of rocks and soil
B ) it is a vast field, stretching from palaeontology to mineralogy
C) insightful observations of the Earth's processes dates back to the ancient Greeks
D) many geologist think there are some truths that work most of the time
E) many of the processes attached to geology cannot be used for measurement in all situaitons

Comments

  • @Mertullgu, the question is a test of your understanding of the word although.

    It isn't just another word for but. We could write

    The science of geology as we know it today is a relatively young field, but insightful observations of the Earth's processes dates date back to the ancient Greeks

    We could use although in the same way to mark a contrast in the second observation

    The science of geology as we know it today is a relatively young field, although insightful observations of the Earth's processes date back to the ancient Greeks

    But the force of although is greater when the contrast is in the first observation.
    The word is a signal that something contrasting and really unexpected is going to be expressed in the second observation.

    The problem with C is that the observation is different but not unexpected. Consideration of
    the science of geology as we know it
    doesn't suggest any contrast (or, indeed, any similarity) with previous scholarship which involved
    insightful observation of the earth's processes
    but were not scientific geology.

    [B] does express an unexpected idea — that this young science has developed into a vast field in a relatively short time.
    To make the contrast clearer, the writer uses the parallel phrases young field and vast field.

    The idea can be reduced to although young. But the point is that the science is young — unlike the history of insightful observation.

    First clause although is perhaps unusual in expressing such a specific sort of contrast. I think it would be OK to use whereas or while.

    Another way of signalling this unexpected contrast is to use despite or in spite of with an -ing form:

    Despite being a relatively young field, the science of geology as we know is a vast field, stretching from palaeontology to mineralogy.
    In spite of being a relatively young field, the science of geology as we know is a vast field, stretching from palaeontology to mineralogy.

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